Skip to Main Content

Citation Styles by Discipline: Getting Started

This guide provides information about citation styles for all of the major academic disciplines.

Header Image

citation basics bibguru illustration


This resource provides guidance on the major citation styles used in different disciplines:

  • Arts and humanities
  • Social sciences
  • Business
  • Health sciences
  • STEM

The guide also includes useful information about citation tools that can help you create accurate citations.

Always consult your instructor, or a librarian, to find out which style you should use for individual assignments.

Digital Object Identifiers (DOI)

Also known as a permalink, a DOI, or digital object identifier, is an article's permanent online location. DOIs are used for a variety of academic and non-academic sources that are located online. 

Different citation styles have distinct rules for when to use DOIs. In most cases, you should include a DOI for all works that have a DOI, regardless of whether you used the online version or the print version. If an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI; if the source only has a URL, include the URL.

Why Cite?

Different disciplines use distinct rules for research papers and publications. Correct citation ensures academic integrity and consistency across various publications and formats. 

You must cite sources that you have paraphrased, quoted, or consulted to write your research paper. Cite your sources in two places:

  1. In the body of your paper (in-text citation).
  2. In the reference list or bibliography at the end of your paper (full bibliographic reference).